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从“开放的东方”,看中国艺术史研究的话语转向

May 26, 2019   TANC

15692257479421569225746059“开放的东方:全球当代艺术语境下的亚洲艺术”论坛现场

“20世纪30年代开始,西方对中国艺术开始产生兴趣并展开深入的研究。”加州大学圣地亚哥分校艺术史论与批评教授,视觉艺术系副主任,博士研究部主任沈揆一在“开放的东方”亚洲美术馆馆长论坛上这样讲到。5月23、24日,这场由13场主题演讲、4场圆桌对话组成的论坛在知美术馆汇集了17位全球学者、策展人、美术馆馆,围绕“开放的东方”这一概念展开,从哲学、美学、历史、艺术史、地缘学等多角度展开,挖掘及整理了“东方”概念的各种定义及可能性。

中国古代艺术史研究的谱系更迭

15692499679351569249943094沈揆一讲义精选

沈揆一所梳理的西方研究中国古代绘画、近现代绘画的主要研究者中,方闻(Wen C. Fong)于美国东部时间10月3日凌晨辞世,享年88岁;高居翰(James Cahill)于2014年在加州伯克利家中去世,享年87岁;班宗华(Richard Barnhart)、李雪曼(Sherman Lee)、苏利文(Michael Sullivan)、李铸晋(Chu-tsing Li)等学者也均已故去。而这些大师的研究多产生于20世纪50年代以后,奠定了西方汉学与欧洲艺术史学方法熔铸而成的中国绘画史,并逐渐确立为一门人文学科,也呈现出西方对中国艺术史研究的三种转变现象:其一为从以绘画研究为中心,转向边缘艺术家和艺术现象;其二为八十年代之后转向佛教艺术研究,外国学者可以到中国实地考察;其三为从古代艺术走向现代艺术研究,对中国现代艺术研究也不断向外延伸,出现了不同的时段、地域的专著。

现今活跃在研究领域的学者大多于20世纪80年代以后,如雷德侯(Lothar Ledderose)、包华石(Martin Powers)、谢伯轲(Jerome Silbergeld)、巫鸿(Wu Hung)等。而方闻的学生更遍布全球重要的艺术史院系,世界大博物馆的东方部门主管人很多都是他们的学生乃至学生的学生,在艺术史领域形成了实力强劲的“普林斯顿学派”。纽约大都会博物馆亚洲艺术部主任,道格拉斯·狄龙研究员何慕文(Maxwell K. Hearn),曾任台湾大学艺术史研究所教授、兼所长,台北故宫博物院副院长、院长等职的石守谦均是例证。曾任加州大学伯克利分校艺术史系教授,华盛顿弗利尔美术馆中国艺术部主任,北京故宫博物院古书画研究中心外聘专家的高居翰同样桃李满天下。这些知识遗产继承人在各自专长的领域从事研究,已逐渐形成职业性学者群体。

中国古代艺术在美国博物馆的世纪呈现

1569252142225旧金山亚洲艺术博物馆(Asian Art Museum of San Francisco),图源许杰现场讲义

旧金山亚洲艺术博物馆馆长许杰的演讲从中国艺术在美国博物馆的呈现角度进行了世纪性的回顾。在他看来,美国各博物馆征集中华文物艺术品始于19世纪末,迄今已有一个世纪多的历史。尽管藏品来源错综复杂,但有益的是使中华文化在美国博物馆取得重要的一席之地。波士顿艺术博物馆(Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)、哈佛大学艺术博物馆(Harvard University Art Museums)、纽约大都会艺术博物馆等十余家藏有各类富有历史、艺术价值的中华文物珍品的博物馆,在美国的地理分布上,东部、中部比较集中,西部相对较少,南部重要的中国文物收藏则更加少。

1569252148039渔父图卷,许道宁 (约970-1051/52),北宋 (960-1127),纳尔逊艺术博物馆藏,图源许杰现场讲义

究其原因,这些博物馆的藏品很大程度上来自私人和民间,而博物馆背后的重要收藏家的作品捐赠很大程度上和博物馆或博物馆部门的建立有着直接的关系。如美国旧金山亚洲艺术博物馆创始人布伦戴奇、佛利尔美术馆的创始人佛利尔,亚洲协会博物馆的创办人洛克菲勒三世等。他们对中国艺术的关注,形成了系统收藏亚洲艺术品的重要影响力,并起到了将收藏最终延续到博物馆建设的路径当中。

除收藏家外,这些馆藏也是如方闻、李雪曼、史克曼(Laurence Sickman)等博物馆专业人员努力的结果(博物馆专业人员某种程度上也是收藏家)。而如1996-1997年“中华瑰宝”、1980年“伟大的中国青铜时代”的通史性展览;2004年“走向盛唐”、2001年“千古遗珍”等断代通览式展览;2001年“王陵瑰宝:中国汉代考古新发现”、2012年“中国兵马俑:秦始皇遗珍”等断代地域式展览;1967张大千画展等专题式展览等临时特展作为跨国文化交流的推介手段,也是亚洲艺术在西方打开的重要途径。

中国古代艺术研究主体的回移

如许杰所言:“(美国)对中国艺术的阐述基本是在西方语境的思路下,以西方艺术发展史为基点。“而近年来可以看到对中国艺术阐述的主体正在回移,2018年底,上海博物馆推出的“丹青宝筏——董其昌书画艺术大展”即是世界目前举办的规模最大的最全的董其昌大展,上海博物馆除了展出本馆馆藏之外,更向美国大都会艺术博物馆、普林斯顿大学艺术博物馆等海内外15家重要收藏机构商借藏品,遴选董其昌及相关作品共计154件(组)。而对董其昌研究的梳理也是上海博物馆几代研究员所积累的共同成果。这一现象可回溯至2012年上海博物馆与美国多家中国书画收藏博物馆联合举办“翰墨荟萃-美国收藏中国五代宋元书画珍品特展”。与这些重磅展览相辅相成的还有相应的研究出版面世。

苏州博物馆自2012年起策划举办的系列学术展览“吴门四家”、2016年起举办的“清代苏州藏家”系列学术展览同样获得了巨大影响。如2012年“石田大穰——吴门画派之沈周特展”就曾向14家文博单位借展,相应的学术研讨会及后期出版的《翰墨流芳(苏州博物馆吴门四家系列展览学术研讨会论文集上下)》围绕明中后期“吴门画派”主题,展现出明代画坛名家沈周、文徵明、唐寅、仇英四人各个时期的代表作品,也通过画作反映明代文人生活和江南山水,以及苏州文化史上那一段黄金时代。

对东方理念的回眺,中国当代艺术的前景与警惕

“近30年来各博物馆开始收藏中国当代艺术,是美国在收藏中国艺术方面的一个尤为重要的新气象。”许杰说从古代艺术的模式来看,中国当代艺术在美国的拓展余地是非常宏大的。90年代以前,哪怕是张大千,在西方艺术界和博物馆界也是籍籍无名的。随着社会的发展,可以看到越来越多的当代艺术家在国外举办展览。

15692511755942002年徐冰作品《鸟飞了》在弗里尔·萨克勒博物馆展览现场

北京画院美术馆馆长,第58届威尼斯双年展中国馆策展人吴洪亮的分享从策展角度对东方理念进行回眺,传统如何与现代连接一直是他关注的话题,在研究额前提下,20世纪的中国艺术正是当代中国艺术的前史。近年来北京画院以齐白石为核心,做了王天德、戴耘等50多位中国20世纪艺术家的个案研究。吴洪亮自己也在苏州博物馆举办了“自·牡丹亭”“自·沧浪亭”等展览,尝试从全球化的眼光、从更多元的角度来看待园林的丰富性。“二十世纪中国美术·历史·现场”、威尼斯双年展中国馆的“Re—睿”等展览则致力于使观众沉浸于“此情此景”之中,体味进入小历史的现场,触碰大历史的神经。

15692511755971993年中国艺术家及策展人在“后89中国新艺术”展览现场

从1998年古根海姆苏荷博物馆的“世纪转折:二十世纪中国艺术中的传统与现代性(A Century in Crisis)”;纽约亚洲学会、旧金山现代艺术博物馆及亚洲艺术博物馆合办的“新中国的艺术(New Chinese Art)”;2017年纽约古根海姆博物馆“89年后的艺术与中国:世界剧场(Art and China after 1989: Theater of the World)”在纽约古根海姆博物馆再到2019年威尼斯双年展中国馆的“Re—睿”展览。中国当代艺术在西方的展现得到了较为乐观的发展。亚洲艺术协会主席史钰丽(Julie Segraves)却清醒地提出“美国评价当代中国艺术的三大障碍”,即西方训练的当代艺术专家和评论家及他们对当代中国艺术国际评价的控制;美国博物馆的中国艺术策展人和西方当代艺术策展人的主观倾向;中国的艺术家在创作中的走向困境(成为西方艺术的衍生、创造在中国传统艺术范围内主要针对中国市场和博物馆的艺术、融入西方艺术技术和思想创造出当代但仍然是中国的作品)。

曼彻斯特大学中国艺术史学术研究主席韩小红(Rosalind Holmes)的演讲从数字领域中的当代艺术探讨了新的超越东西方艺术界线的方式,在她眼中,中国当代年轻艺术家有更多的机会出国,并通过网络了解中国以外的世界,他们身上体现出的全球性,让当代艺术探索的原创性、国际性、审美性等创作主题开始超越国界。

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《ArtReview》发布2019“Power 100”,哪些因素影响当代艺术界的权力结构?

11月14日,全球领先的国际当代艺术杂志《ArtReview》发布了2019年当代艺术界影响力的年度排行“权力100”(Power 100)榜单。纽约现代艺术博物馆(MoMA)馆长Glenn D. Lowry位列榜单首位。

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